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Eurocodes Zoning

Snow, wind and seism zones for a building place

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- What are the Italian snow zones ?
- How to determine the influence of elevation on the ground snow load in Italy ?
- How to adjust the ground snow load according to return period in Italy ?
- Example of results given by the software
- Get the zones for a localisation using Eurocodes Zoning !

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What are the Eurocodes ?

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On the map of the national annex, the Italian territory is divided by provinces into three snow zones identified from 1 to 3. The snow zone 1 is subdivided into two to account for the Alpine or Mediterranean influence.

Zone | I-M | I-A | II | III |
---|---|---|---|---|

Characteristic value of snow on the ground without elevation s_{k,0} | 1.50kN/m^{2} | 1.50kN/m^{2} | 1.00kN/m^{2} | 0.60kN/m^{2} |

Snow zoning of Italy (2010-2021)

Distinct variation laws must be applied depending on each zone.

Snow loads are calculated as follows:

Snow loads are calculated as follows:

- Up to 200m :
- Above 200m :
- Zone I-M :
- Zone I-A :
- Zone II :
- Zone III :

_{s}is the elevation of the site.

P_{n} is the annual probability of exceedence :

dwl is the design working life, in years. Look at the design working life of buildings in Italy.

V is the coefficient of variation of annual maximum snow load with V=0.2 for a recurrence interval less than 50 years and V=0.6 for a recurrence interval greater than 50 years.

It should not be applied for annual probabilities of exceedence greater than 0,2 (i.e. return period less than approximately 5 years).

See the features of Eurocodes Zoning for snow analysis in Italy

Available in English/French, otherwise «Google Translate»! ## B1 - Localization

## B2 - Elevations

## B3 - Building

## B4 - Terrain categories

## C1 - Snow UNI EN 1991-1-3 Appendice nazionale 24/09/2010

## C2 - Wind UNI EN 1991-1-4 Appendice nazionale 24/09/2010

^{*} The orography factor is calculated for a well individualized obstacle (an emergent zone compared to a general ground without marked relief)

Available in English/French, otherwise «Google Translate»!

10.5188° , 43.7455°

56011 Calci, Toscana

Coordinates | 10.5181°, 43.7303° | 10.5198°, 43.7596° | 10.5198°, 43.7596° | 10.5179°, 43.7901° |
---|---|---|---|---|

Elevations | 60m | 798m | 798m | 109m |

Obstacle effective height H | 738m | 689m | ||

Slope actual length L_{u} / L_{d} | 3261.4m | 3379.8m | ||

Slope angle Φ | 22.6% | 20.4% | ||

Horizontal distance site/top x | 1571.5m | |||

Elevation at the place of construction | 216m |

common structure

50years

10.0m

15°

Sectors | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |
---|---|---|---|---|

Roughness classes | C | C | B | B |

Radius R of the angular sector : 1000m

Sectors | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |
---|---|---|---|---|

Sector definition | from 330° to 60° | from 60° to 150° | from 150° to 240° | from 240° to 330° |

Distance to shore | > 100 km | > 100 km | 21.3 km | 19.5 km |

Exposure category | III | III | III | III |

III (s_{k,0} = 0.6kN/m^{2})

Pisa,Toscana

s_{k,216m} = 0.613 kN/m^{2}

s_{50years} = 0.613 kN/m^{2}

3 (v_{b,0} = 27.0m/s)

Pisa, Toscana

Sectors | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 |
---|---|---|---|---|

Sector definition | from 330° to 60° | from 60° to 150° | from 150° to 240° | from 240° to 330° |

Value of the basic wind velocity from the map v_{b,0,map} | 27.0m/s | |||

Elevation above which wind velocity increases a_{0} | 500m | |||

Fundamental value of the basic wind velocity v_{b,0} | 27.0m/s | |||

Shape parameter K | 0.138 | |||

Exponent n | 1.0 | |||

Annual probability of exceedence p | 0.02 | |||

Probability factor c_{prob} | 1.0 | |||

Directional factor c_{dir} | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 |

Basic wind velocity v_{b} | 27.0m/s | 27.0m/s | 27.0m/s | 27.0m/s |

Reference roughness length z_{0,II} | 0.05m | |||

Roughness length z_{0} | 0.1m | 0.1m | 0.1m | 0.1m |

Terrain factor k_{r} | 0.2 | 0.2 | 0.2 | 0.2 |

Height above ground z | 10.0m | |||

Minimum height z_{min} | 5.0m | 5.0m | 5.0m | 5.0m |

Roughness factor c_{r(z)} | 0.921 | 0.921 | 0.921 | 0.921 |

Obstacle type | isolated hills | |||

Exposure type | downwind | - | upwind | - |

Factor depending on the type and dimensions of the obstacle s | 0.444 | 0.0 | 0.282 | 0.0 |

Orography factor^{*} c_{o(z)} | 1.181 | 1.0 | 1.128 | 1.0 |

Mean wind velocity v_{m(z)} | 29.4m/s | 24.9m/s | 28.0m/s | 24.9m/s |

Turbulence factor k_{l} | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 |

Standard deviation of the turbulence σ_{v} | 5.4m/s | 5.4m/s | 5.4m/s | 5.4m/s |

Turbulence intensity I_{v(z)} | 0.184 | 0.217 | 0.193 | 0.217 |

Air density ρ | 1.25kg/m^{3} | |||

Exposure factor c_{e(z)} | 2.706 | 2.138 | 2.532 | 2.138 |

Peak velocity pressure q_{p(z)} | 1233.0N/m^{2} | 974.0N/m^{2} | 1153.8N/m^{2} | 974.0N/m^{2} |

Peak wind velocity for Serviceability Limit States v_{p(z),SLS} | 159.9km/h | 142.1km/h | 154.7km/h | 142.1km/h |

Peak wind velocity for Ultimate Limit States v_{p(z),ULS} | 195.8km/h | 174.1km/h | 189.4km/h | 174.1km/h |