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Lifting Point

Lifting lugs calculation software

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- What is a lifting lug ?
- Good to know !
- How to calculate a lifting lug ?
- Example of results given by the software
- Export of the results as a DXF file
- Advanced service - certified calculation report
- Design my lifting lug using Lifting Point !

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- Eurocode 3 - Steel structures

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A lifting lug is a lifting and handling accessory generally welded to a part to hoist it with a crane / overhead crane hook.

It is possible to buy standard models or to manufacture them yourself with sheet metal.

It is possible to buy standard models or to manufacture them yourself with sheet metal.

standard lifting lug

homemade lifting lug

- For France, the usage factor can be found on LEGIFRANCE.
- Example with French rules :
lifting and handling equipment lifting speed dynamic factor NF EN 1990 factor usage factor fixed crane or on rails ⩽ 0.5m/s 1.15 ^{*}1.5 4 ⩾ 1m/s 1.3 ^{*}crane bridge ⩽ 0.25m/s 1.15 ^{*}⩾ 1m/s 1.6 ^{*}lifting and transport on flat ground 2 lifting and transport on rough terrain > 4 1.5 > 6 ^{*}dynamic factor = with ξ = 0.3 for fixed crane or on rails and ξ = 0.6 for crane bridge. - The quantity of effective lifting points may be less than the quantity of real lifting points if the system is not balanced. It is recommended not to exceed 2 effective lifting points in the calculations if no specific balancing system is used.
- The force in one lifting point does not necessarily correspond to the mass to be lifted divided by the number of effective lifting points. The inclination of the slings will cause a horizontal reaction that will amplify the force.

The multiplier factor can be calculated as follow :

With α the angle formed between :- the two slings connecting the most distant points if no specific balancing system is used.
- the two slings connecting points side by side if a specific balancing system is used (like a lifting beam).

no specific balancing system is useda lifting beam is used - In the case of intensive use of the lifting point, an additional calculation of the fatigue strength must be carried out.

(2.b) the design ultimate resistance of the net cross-section at holes for fasteners :

(6.7)

where:

(6.7)

where:

- A
_{net}is the net area of the cross section. - f
_{u}is the ultimate strength. - γ
_{M2}is the partial factor for resistance of cross-sections in tension to fracture.

block tearing

(2) For a symmetric bolt group subject to concentric loading the design block tearing resistance, V

(3.9)

where:

- A
_{nt}is the net area subjected to tension. - A
_{nv}is the net area subjected to shear. - f
_{y}is the yield strength. - γ
_{M0}is the partial factor for resistance of cross-sections whatever the class is.

bearing resistance

(Table 3.4 - bearing resistance)

where:

where:

- k
_{1}is a coefficient that takes into account distances to edges perpendicularly to the applied force. - α
_{b}is a coefficient that takes into account the distances to the edges parallel to the applied force. - d is the nominal crane hook diameter.
- t is the the thickness of the lifting lug.
- the 0.6 factor is added to take into account the effect of 150% oversized hole (like a slotted hole - Note 1 Table 3.4).

(2) Pin connections in which no rotation is required may be designed as single bolted connections, provided that the length of the pin is less than 3 times the diameter of the pin, see 3.6.1. For all other cases the method given in 3.13.2 should be followed :

Geometric requirements :

(Table 3.10 - bearing resistance)

where:

Geometric requirements :

(Table 3.10 - bearing resistance)

where:

- d
_{0}is the the hole diameter.

See the features of Lifting Point

Available in English/French, otherwise «Google Translate»!

Available in English/French, otherwise «Google Translate»!

Failure modes | Checking |
---|---|

Tension in the net section | OK (37.0%) |

Fracture beyond the hole | OK (74.0%) |

Bearing | OK (90.5%) |

Welding | OK (60.1%) |

The DXF (Drawing eXchange Format) is a CAD data file format developed by Autodesk to allow transfer of information from AutoCAD to other programs.

This makes it possible to directly manufacture the part or integrate it into another technical drawing.

This makes it possible to directly manufacture the part or integrate it into another technical drawing.

DXF format files can not only be read by commercial software like AutoCAD but also by several Free/Open Source software like:

- Online file viewers:
- DXFconverter (choose « Convert to: SVG » for output)
- ShareCAD
- GroupDoc DXF Viewer

- With an installation on your computer:

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Real lifting points | 4 | |
---|---|---|

Effective lifting points | 2 | |

Slings height | 4.0m | |

Spacing on length | 6.0m | |

Spacing on width | 4.0m | |

Eccentricity on length (towards the left) | 2.4m | |

Eccentricity on width (rearward) | 2.4m | |

Slings angle / horizontal | 63.8° | |

Hook/shackle diameter d | 40mm |

country | workpiece mass | amplification factors | design force | angle | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

usage | balance | slings | total | ||||

10000kg | 4.0 | 1.4 | 1.115 | 6.242 | 306.18kN | 63.8° |

Steel class | S355 | parameter a | 60.0mm | |
---|---|---|---|---|

Thickness t | 30mm | parameter c | 60.0mm | |

L | 227mm | End distance e _{1} = a + 0.5 d_{h} | 90.0 mm | |

H | 165mm | |||

L1 | 90.0mm | Edge distance e _{2} = c + 0.5 d_{h} | 90.0 mm | |

H1 | 75.0mm | |||

Hole diameter d_{h} | 60.0mm | External radius | 90.0mm |

f_{u} = 470MPa

f_{y} = 345MPa

f

γ_{M0} = 1.0

γ_{M2} = 1.25

γ

k_{r} = 0.9(EN 1993-1-1 §6.2.3(2.b))

Standard | Net area A_{net} | N_{u,Rd} | Gross area A | N_{pl,Rd} | N_{t,Rd} | Ratio |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

EN 1993-1-1 §6.2.3 | 3600 mm^{2} | = 1218.24 kN | 5400 mm^{2} | = 1863.0 kN | 1218.24 kN | 0.251 |

Standard | N_{t,Rd} | Ratio |
---|---|---|

EN 1993-1-8 §3.13 | = 828.0 kN | 0.37 |

Example - Do not use

Standard | Net area A_{nv} | V_{eff,Rd} | Ratio |
---|---|---|---|

EN 1993-1-1 §6.2.3 | 3600 mm^{2} | = 717.07 kN | 0.427 |

Standard | V_{eff,Rd} | Ratio |
---|---|---|

EN 1993-1-8 §3.13 | = 414.0 kN | 0.74 |

Hole clearance : oversize hole up to 150%(EN 1090-2 §6.6.1)

Associated reduction factor : k_{hole} = 0.6(EN 1993-1-8 table 3.4 Note 1)

Associated reduction factor : k

Standard | α_{d} | α_{b} | k_{1} | F_{b,Rd} | Ratio |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

EN 1993-1-8 §3.6 | 0.5 | 0.5 | 2.5 | = 338.4 kN | 0.905 |

Standard | F_{b,Rd} | Ratio |
---|---|---|

EN 1993-1-8 §3.13 | = 621.0 kN | 0.493 |

Standard | Effective length L_{w,eff} | F_{w,Ed} (includes eccentricity effects) | Effective throat a_{w} | β_{w} | F_{w,Rd} | Ratio |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

EN 1993-1-8 §3.13 | 150 mm | 2.61kN/mm | 9 mm | 0.9 | = 4.34 kN/mm | 0.601 |

- The workpiece on which the lifting lug is welded must be of equal or greater steel grade.
- Welding must be peripheral and continuous. In no case should the applied forces lead to an opening of the joint around a longitudinal axis passing through the root of the weld bead.

Maximum work rate: 90.5%, the dimensions and thickness are correct.